pISSN 2005-9159
eISSN 2093-0569

Clinical Research Article

Korean J Pain 2024; 37(2): 164-177

Published online April 1, 2024 https://doi.org/10.3344/kjp.23301

Copyright © The Korean Pain Society.

Effect of pain on cranio-cervico-mandibular function and postural stability in people with temporomandibular joint disorders

Mehmet Miçooğulları1 , İnci Yüksel2 , Salih Angın1

1Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Sciences, Cyprus International University, Lefkoşa, Turkiye
2Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Sciences, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, Turkiye

Correspondence to:Mehmet Miçooğulları
Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Sciences, Cyprus International University, Via Mersin 10, Lefkoşa 99258, Turkiye
Tel: +90 392 671 1111, Fax: +90 392 671 1130, E-mail: mmicoogullari@ciu.edu.tr

Handling Editor: Jae Hun Kim

Received: October 25, 2023; Revised: January 11, 2024; Accepted: January 15, 2024

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Background: Neck and jaw pain is common and is associated with jaw functional limitations, postural stability, muscular endurance, and proprioception. This study aimed to investigate the effect of jaw and neck pain on craniocervico- mandibular functions and postural stability in patients with temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJDs).
Methods: Fifty-two patients with TMJDs were included and assessed using Fonseca's Questionnaire and the Helkimo Clinical Dysfunction Index. An isometric strength test was performed for the TMJ depressor and cervical muscles. The TMJ position sense (TMJPS) test and cervical joint position error test (CJPET) were employed for proprioception. Total sway degree was obtained for the assessment of postural stability. Deep neck flexor endurance (DNFE) was assessed using the craniocervical flexion test. The mandibular function impairment questionnaire (MFIQ) was employed to assess mandibular function, and the craniovertebral angle (CVA) was measured for forward head posture.
Results: Jaw and neck pain negatively affected CVA (R2 = 0.130), TMJPS (R2 = 0.286), DNFE (R2 = 0.355), TMJ depressor (R2 = 0.145), cervical flexor (R2 = 0.144), and extensor (R2 = 0.148) muscle strength. Jaw and neck pain also positively affected CJPET for flexion (R2 = 0.116) and extension (R2 = 0.146), as well as total sway degree (R2 = 0.128) and MFIQ (R2 = 0.230).
Conclusions: Patients with painful TMJDs, could have impaired muscle strength and proprioception of the TMJ and cervical region. The jaw and neck pain could also affect postural stability, and the endurance of deep neck flexors as well as mandibular functions in TMJDs.

Keywords: Jaw, Muscle Strength, Neck, Pain, Posture, Proprioception, Temporomandibular Joint Disorders