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Fig. 2. The repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment mechanism in central post-stroke pain (CPSP). Schematic illustration showing the mechanisms behind the use of rTMS to treat CPSP includes increasing CBF, normalizing connectivity between MD and amygdala, increasing neurotransmitter release, altering neuronal plasticity, and modulating cortical excitability. CBF: cerebral blood flow, MD: mediodorsal, BDNF: brain-derived neurotrophic factor, NGF: nerve growth factor, GABA: gamma-aminobutyric acid, NMDA: N-methyl-D-aspartate, LTP: long-term potentiation, LTD: long-term depression, ICI: intracortical inhibition, ICF: intracortical facilitation.
Korean J Pain 2023;36:408~424
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