Comparison of group differences in pre– and post–4–week treatment change scores for pain, posture, ROM, and NDI

Parameters Group 1 Δ Group 2 Δ Group 3 Δ P valuea Groups P valueb
Pain (VNPS) –2.93 ± 0.46 –3.93 ± 0.79 –4.13 ± 0.83 < 0.001*** 1–2
1–3
2–3
< 0.001***
< 0.001***
0.567
Posture 3.66 ± 4.41 8.33 ± 4.87 10.33 ± 4.80 < 0.001*** 1–2
1–3
2–3
0.019*
0.002*
0.389
ROM (degrees)
Flexion 3.26 ± 1.83 6.46 ± 1.50 5.20±2.14 < 0.001*** 1–2
1–3
2–3
< 0.001***
0.013*
0.081
Extension 3.20 ± 2.42 6.66 ± 2.76 5.40±2.69 < 0.001*** 1–2
1–3
2–3
0.002*
0.056
0.174
R Lat. flexion 2.73 ± 1.70 5.60 ± 1.50 4.80±1.89 < 0.001*** 1–2
1–3
2–3
< 0.001***
0.011*
0.267
L Lat. flexion 2.60 ± 2.35 5.00 ± 2.03 4.53±2.38 0.048* 1–2
1–3
2–3
0.023*
0.067
0.775
R rotation 3.26 ± 2.05 5.40 ± 1.95 5.13±2.26 0.035* 1–2
1–3
2–3
0.021*
0.037*
0.935
L rotation 2.53 ± 1.99 6.13 ± 1.35 4.93±2.46 < 0.001*** 1–2
1–3
2–3
< 0.001***
0.007*
0.217
NDI –9.00 ± 2.61 –15.46 ± 3.44 –15.26 ± 3.10 < 0.001*** 1–2
1–3
2–3
< 0.001***
< 0.001***
0.935

Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation.

VNPS: verbal numeric pain scale, ROM: range of motion, R: right, L: left, Lat: lateral, NDI: Neck Disability Index, Δ: difference between assessments, Group 1: conventional treatment, Group 2: conventional treatment plus deep cervical flexor training, Group 3: conventional treatment plus stabilization of the neck and core region.

aKruskal–Wallis test, bMann–Whitney U-test.

*P < 0.05, ***P < 0.001.

Korean J Pain 2023;36:242~252 https://doi.org/10.3344/kjp.22371
© Korean J Pain