Demographic, clinical characteristics, psychological, and pain measures related to the pain of the study sample

Variable Non-responders
(n = 13)
Responders
(n = 20)
P value
Age (yr) 52.11 ± 6.67 48.00 ± 7.98 0.980
Education (yr) 11.44 ± 4.09 12.55 ± 5.29 0.643
Time of diagnosis (yr) 6.78 ± 0.44 6.95 ± 0.22 0.090
Smoking (Yes/No) 2/11 7/13 0.200
Clinical comorbidity (Yes/No) 10 (76.9)/3 (23.1) 14 (70.0)/6 (30.0) 0.493
Hypertension (Yes) 9 4
Cardiac ischemia (Yes) 2 0
Diabetes (Yes) 0 2
Hypothyroidism (Yes) 5 2
Asthma (Yes) 0 1
Other (Yes) 2 0
Number of days analgesic used per week in the last three months (< 4 times/> 4 times)b 5 (38.5)/8 (61.5) 10 (50.0)/10 (50.0) 0.511
Acetaminophen/Dipirone (Yes) 9 8
Dorflex (Yes) orphenadrine citrate + dipirone 7 6
NSAID (Yes) 4 3
Opioid (Yes) 4 3
Psychiatric disorder according to MINI (Yes/No)a 11 (84.6)/2 (15.4) 10 (50.0)/10 (50.0) 0.041
Anxiety 4 5
Major depression 10 12
Panic Syndrome 1 4
Obsessive-compulsive disorder 0 1
Use of central nervous system medication (Yes/No)b 11 (84.6)/2 (15.4) 10 (50.0)/10 (50.0) 0.040
Tricyclic or dual inhibition of monoamine reuptake antidepressants 6 7
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant 5 4
Anticonvulsant drugs 3 4
Benzodiazepine 2 2
Pain measures and severity of symptoms
Visual Analogue Scale (0–10 cm) 8.63 ± 0.97 8.25 ± 1.25 0.206
Widespread pain index 13.83 ± 1.99 12.63 ± 1.92 0.655
Symptom severity scale 9.58 ± 1.83 10.05 ± 1.62 0.790
American College Rheumatology 2016 22.22 ± 3.86 22.60 ± 2.42 0.812
Heat pain threshold – Celsius degree 44.60 ± 3.33 45.78 ± 3.25 0.381
Central sensitization symptoms, sleep quality, and psychological symptoms
Central Sensitization Inventory 61.23 ± 15.54 64.30 ± 14.39 0.566
Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index 12.22 ± 3.88 13.05 ± 3.69 0.145
Trait-Anxiety Inventory (reduced version) 33.00 ± 5.70 27.15 ± 9.93 0.110
State-Anxiety Inventory (reduced version) 28.67 ± 5.93 25.75 ± 6.43 0.265
Beck Depression Inventory 21.33 ± 9.53 23.55 ± 12.04 0.808
Pain Catastrophizing Scale 38.61 ± 7.17 30.45 ± 11.35 0.028

Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation, number only, or number (%).

For data analysis, analgesic use was included as a dichotomous variable (analgesics less than four days per week or more than four days per week). For patients with chronic pain, the rescue analgesic use changes each week depending on their pain level.

NSAID: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, MINI: mini-international Neuropsychiatric Interview.

aPatients could have none or more than one psychiatric disorder.

bSome patients were using more than one type of drug.

Korean J Pain 2023;36:113~127 https://doi.org/10.3344/kjp.22225
© Korean J Pain