Incidence rates of the unspecified pain diagnoses, idiopathic pain disorders, and prescription of opioid medications

Variable Entire cohort Cohort without a history of the pain diagnoses
COVID-19 (n = 7,911) Control (n = 7,911) P value COVID-19 (n = 1,504) Control (n = 1,504) P value
Unspecified pain (any one of the following) 862 (11.7%, 11.0–12.5) 499 (6.5%, 6.0–7.1) < 0.001 99 (7.2%, 5.9–8.7) 19 (1.3%, 0.8–2.0) < 0.001
Pain in throat and chest 449 (6.0%, 5.5–6.6) 129 (1.6%, 1.4–1.9) < 0.001 53 (3.9%, 2.9–5.0) 5 (0.33%, 0.13–0.75) < 0.001
Abdominal and pelvic pain 321 (4.3%, 3.9–4.8) 278 (3.6%, 3.2–4.0) 0.020 32 (2.3%, 1.6–3.2) 9 (0.60%, 0.30–1.1) < 0.001
Pain associated with micturition 20 (0.25%, 0.16–0.39) 20 (0.25%, 0.16–0.39) 0.858 3 (0.20%, 0.06–0.61) 1 (0.07%, 0.01–0.37) 0.281
Pain, not elsewhere classified 150 (2.0%. 1.7–2.4) 113 (1.4%, 1.2–1.7) 0.005 15 (1.1%, 0.6–1.8) 4 (0.27%, 0.09–0.66) 0.006
Idiopathic pain disorders (any one of the following) 744 (10.1%, 9.4–10.8) 519 (6.7%, 6.2–7.3) < 0.001 74 (5.4%, 4.3–6.7) 17 (1.1%, 0.7–1.8) < 0.001
Fibromyalgia 0 0 0 0
Temporomandibular joint disorders 0 0 0 0
Headaches 491 (6.6%, 6.1–7.2) 289 (3.7%, 3.3–4.1) < 0.001 57 (4.1%, 3.2–5.3) 9 (0.60%, 0.3–1.1) < 0.001
Chronic prostatitis 25 (0.34%, 0.22–0.49) 20 (0.25%, 0.16–0.39) 0.347 1 (0.07%, 0.01–0.40) 2 (0.13%, 0.03–0.46) 0.622
CRPS 7 (0.09%, 0.04–0.19) 9 (0.11%, 0.06–0.21) 0.701 1 (0.07%, 0.01–0.40) 0 0.301
Atypical facial pain 0 0 0 0
Irritable bowel syndrome 254 (3.4%, 3.0–3.9) 231 (3.0%, 2.6–3.4) 0.108 16 (1.2%, 0.70–1.8) 6 (0.40%, 0.17–0.84) 0.019
Interstitial cystitis 2 (0.03%, 0.01–0.10) 3 (0.04%, 0.01–0.11) 0.702 0 0
Opioid 950 (12.8%, 12.1–13.6) 821 (10.7%, 10.0–11.4) < 0.001 98 (7.1%, 5.8–8.5) 48 (3.2%, 2.4–4.2) < 0.001
Opioid without malignant neoplasm 878 (11.8%, 11.1–12.6) 763 (9.9%, 9.2–10.5) < 0.001 95 (6.9%, 5.6–8.3) 45 (3.0%, 2.2–4.0) < 0.001

Values are presented as number (%, 95% confidence interval).

CRPS: complex regional pain syndrome.

Korean J Pain 2022;35:458~467 https://doi.org/10.3344/kjp.2022.35.4.458
© Korean J Pain