Propensity score matched baseline characteristics

Characteristics Entire cohort Cohort without a history of the pain diagnoses
COVID-19 Control group SMD COVID-19 Control group SMD
Total
Before matching 8,070 116,628 1,557 24,321
After matching 7,911 (100) 7,911 (100) 1,504 (100) 1,504 (100)
Age (yr)
0–19 346 (4.4) 349 (4.4) 0.002 99 (6.6) 102 (6.8) 0.008
20–39 2,835 (35.8) 2,851 (36.0) 0.004 710 (47.2) 722 (48.0) 0.016
40–59 2,554 (32.3) 2,574 (32.5) 0.005 444 (29.5) 437 (29.1) 0.010
60–69 1,176 (14.9) 1,161 (14.7) 0.005 153 (10.2) 142 (9.4) 0.025
70–79 604 (7.6) 581 (7.3) 0.011 50 (3.3) 52 (3.5) 0.007
≥ 80 396 (5.0) 395 (5.0) 0.001 48 (3.2) 49 (3.3) 0.004
Sex
Female 4,760 (60.2) 4,779 (60.4) 0.005 729 (48.5) 733 (48.7) 0.005
Male 3,151 (39.8) 3,132 (39.6) 0.005 775 (51.5) 771 (51.3) 0.005
Region of residence
Capital 971 (12.3) 982 (12.4) 0.004 270 (18.0) 278 (18.5) 0.014
Daegu/Gyeongbuk 6,097 (77.1) 6,097 (77.1) 0.000 1,043 (69.3) 1,042 (69.3) 0.001
Others 843 (10.7) 832 (10.5) 0.005 191 (12.7) 184 (12.2) 0.014
Economic status
Medical aid 637 (8.1) 622 (7.9) 0.007 100 (6.6) 84 (5.6) 0.044
0–25% 1,814 (22.9) 1,787 (22.6) 0.008 353 (23.5) 335 (22.3) 0.028
26–50% 1,489 (18.8) 1,497 (18.9) 0.003 278 (18.5) 302 (20.1) 0.040
51–75% 1,668 (21.1) 1,660 (21.0) 0.002 323 (21.5) 333 (22.1) 0.016
76–100% 2,289 (28.9) 2,315 (29.3) 0.007 445 (29.6) 435 (28.9) 0.015
Underlying diseases
Mood disorders 1,316 (16.6) 1,310 (16.6) 0.002 135 (9.0) 131 (8.7) 0.009
Hypertension 1,846 (23.3) 1,844 (23.3) 0.001 203 (13.5) 184 (12.2) 0.038
Diabetes 1,411 (17.8) 1409 (17.8) 0.001 139 (9.2) 133 (8.8) 0.014
Obesity 19 (0.2) 22 (0.3) 0.007 3 (0.2) 0 (0.0) 0.063
Nicotine dependence 2 (0.0) 3 (0.0) 0.007 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Alcohol dependence 116 (1.5) 97 (1.2) 0.021 25 (1.7) 24 (1.6) 0.005
Chronic lower respiratory diseases 3,847 (48.6) 3,860 (48.8) 0.003 429 (28.5) 435 (28.9) 0.009
Heart diseases 817 (10.3) 799 (10.1) 0.008 55 (3.7) 55 (3.7) 0.000
Chronic kidney diseases 99 (1.3) 80 (1.0) 0.023 13 (0.9) 9 (0.6) 0.031
Malignant neoplasms 477 (6.0) 467 (5.9) 0.005 42 (2.8) 37 (2.5) 0.021
Stroke 303 (3.8) 261 (3.3) 0.029 14 (0.9) 9 (0.6) 0.038
Admission to skilled nursing facilities 301 (3.8) 291 (3.7) 0.007 53 (3.5) 50 (3.3) 0.011

Values are presented as number (%).

SMD: standardized mean difference.

Korean J Pain 2022;35:458~467 https://doi.org/10.3344/kjp.2022.35.4.458
© Korean J Pain