Risk of bias assessment

Study, year Randomization process Intended interventions Missing outcome data Measurement of the
outcome
Selection of the reported result Overall result
Bulilete et al., 2019 [108] Some concern No statement for allocation concealment Low risk Both blinded Low risk 1/98 dropped, unrelated to the outcome Low risk Blinded Low risk Predefined outcomes Some concern
Lee et al., 2016 [104] Some concern No statement for allocation concealment Some concern No specific information Some concern No specific information Some concern No specific information Low risk Predefined outcomes Some concern
Stepanović et al., 2015 [103] Some concern No statement for allocation concealment Some concern Blinded only in assesor Some concern No specific information Low risk Blinded Low risk Predefined outcomes Some concern
Makharita et al., 2015 [102] Some concern No statement for allocation concealment Low risk Both blinded Low risk No exclusion Low risk Blinded Low risk Predefined outcomes Some concern
Makharita et al., 2012 [101] Some concern No statement for allocation concealment Low risk Both blinded Low risk 3/64 dropped, unrelated to the outcome Low risk Blinded Low risk Predefined outcomes Some concern
Krcevski Skvarc and Kamenik, 2010 [98] High risk No specific information Some concern No specific information Low risk No exclusion Some concern No specific information Low risk Predefined outcomes High risk
Ji et al., 2009 [97] Some concern No statement for allocation concealment Some concern Blinded only in assesor Low risk 19/132 dropped, propotions existed Low risk Blinded Low risk Predefined outcomes Some concern
van Wijck et al., 2006 [96] Some concern No statement for allocation concealment Some concern Blinded only in assesor Low risk 33/598 dropped, propotions existed Low risk Blinded Low risk Predefined outcomes Some concern
Pasqualucci et al., 2000 [110] Some concern No statement for allocation concealment Some concern Blinded only in assesor Low risk 31/600 dropped, protocol violation Low risk Blinded Low risk Predefined outcomes Some concern
Ahmed et al., 1998 [94] Some concern No statement for allocation concealment Some concern Blinded only in assesor Low risk No exclusion Low risk Blinded Low risk Predefined outcomes Some concern
Bowsher, 1997 [93] Low risk Sealed envelop Low risk Both blinded Low risk 6/80 dropped, unrelated to the outcome Low risk Blinded Low risk Predefined outcomes Low risk
Harding and Porter, 1991 [114] High risk No statement for allocation concealment, randomization sequence Some concern Both blinded Some concern 8/46 dropped, no specific propotion revealed Low risk Blinded Low risk Predefined outcomes High risk
Benoldi et al., 1991 [92] High risk No statement for allocation concealment, randomization sequence Some concern Different procedure Low risk 1/36 dropped, unrelated to the outcome Some concern No specific information Low risk Predefined outcomes High risk
Esmann et al., 1987 [88] High risk No statement for allocation concealment, randomization sequence Some concern Both blinded Low risk No exclusion Low risk Blinded Low risk Predefined outcomes High risk
Cobo et al., 1986 [87] High risk No statement for allocation concealment, randomization sequence, basement difference existed Low risk Both blinded Low risk No exclusion Low risk Blinded Low risk Predefined outcomes High risk
Balfour et al., 1983 [85] Some concern No statement for allocation concealment, randomization sequence Low risk Both blinded Low risk No exclusion Low risk Blinded Low risk Predefined outcomes Some concern
Esmann et al., 1982 [84] Some concern No statement for allocation concealment, randomization sequence Low risk Both blinded Low risk 1/56 dropped Low risk Blinded Low risk Predefined outcomes Some concern
Bean et al., 1982 [83] High risk No statement for allocation concealment Some concern Both blinded Some concern 2/31 dropped Low risk Blinded Low risk Predefined outcomes High risk
Keczkes and Basheer, 1980 [115] Some concern No statement for allocation concealment, randomization sequence Low risk Both blinded Low risk No exclusion Low risk Blinded Low risk Predefined outcomes Some concern
Cui et al., 2018 [107] Some concern No statement for allocation concealment Low risk Both blinded Low risk 5/102 dropped, unrelated to the outcome Low risk Blinded Low risk Predefined outcomes Some concern
Cui et al., 2017 [105] Some concern No statement for allocation concealment, randomization sequence Some concern Both blinded Low risk 2/96 dropped Low risk Blinded Low risk Predefined outcomes Some concern
Ni et al., 2017 [106] Some concern No statement for allocation concealment Some concern No specific information Low risk 5/100 dropped, unrelated to the outcome Some concern No specific information Low risk Predefined outcomes Some concern
Zheng et al., 2019 [109] Some concern No statement for allocation concealment Low risk Both blinded Low risk 13/153 dropped Low risk Blinded Low risk Predefined outcomes Some concern
Hwang et al., 1999 [79] High risk No statement for allocation concealment, randomization sequence Some concern No specific information Low risk No exclusion Some concern No specific information Low risk Predefined outcomes High risk
Wan et al., 2019 [120] Some concern No statement for allocation concealment Some concern Both blinded Low risk 2/96 dropped, unrelated to the outcome Low risk Blinded Low risk Predefined outcomes Some concern
Hügler et al., 2002 [116] High risk No statement for allocation concealment, randomization sequence Some concern Both blinded Low risk No exclusion Low risk Blinded Low risk Predefined outcomes High risk
Cui et al., 2016 [117] Some concern No statement for allocation concealment, randomization sequence Some concern No specific information Low risk No exclusion Low risk Blinded Low risk Predefined outcomes Some concern
Payne et al., 1989 [91] Some concern No statement for allocation concealment Low risk Both blinded Low risk 3/41 dropped Low risk Blinded Low risk Predefined outcomes Some concern
Wood et al., 1994 [111] Some concern No statement for allocation concealment Low risk Both blinded Low risk 51/400 dropped, unrelated to the outcome Low risk Blinded Low risk Predefined outcomes Some concern
McGill et al., 1983 [86] Some concern No statement for allocation concealment Low risk Both blinded Low risk 3/40 dropped, unrelated to the outcome Low risk Blinded Low risk Predefined outcomes Some concern
Wassilew et al., 1987 [89] Some concern No statement for allocation concealment, randomization sequence Low risk Both blinded Low risk 2/60 dropped Low risk Blinded Low risk Predefined outcomes Some concern
Mandal et al., 1988 [90] High risk No statement for allocation concealment, randomization sequence, basement difference existed Low risk Both blinded Low risk 8/64 dropped, unrelated to the outcome Low risk Blinded Low risk Predefined outcomes High risk
Lee et al., 1999 [95] High risk No statement for allocation concealment, randomization sequence, basement difference existed Some concern No specific information Low risk No exclusion Low risk Blinded Low risk Predefined outcomes High risk
Harding et al., 1986 [119] Some concern No statement for allocation concealment Some concern No specific information Some concern No specific information Some concern No specific information Low risk Predefined outcomes Some concern
Kanodia and Singhal, 2011 [99] Some concern No statement for allocation concealment, randomization sequence Low risk Both blinded Some concern No specific information Low risk Blinded Low risk Predefined outcomes Some concern
Kanodia et al., 2012 [100] Some concern No statement for allocation concealment, randomization sequence Low risk Both blinded Some concern No specific information Low risk Blinded Low risk Predefined outcomes Some concern
Manabe et al., 2004 [118] High risk No statement for allocation concealment, randomization sequence, basement difference existed Low risk Both blinded Low risk 3/59 dropped, unrelated to the outcome Low risk Blinded Low risk Predefined outcomes High risk
Clemmensen and Andersen, 1984 [112] High risk No statement for allocation concealment, randomization sequence, basement difference existed Low risk Both blinded Low risk 5/60 dropped, unrelated to outcome Low risk Blinded Low risk Predefined outcomes High risk
Eaglstein et al., 1970 [113] High risk No statement for allocation concealment, randomization sequence Low risk Both blinded Some concern 1/35 dropped Low risk Blinded Low risk Predefined outcomes High risk
Korean J Pain 2021;34:509~533 https://doi.org/10.3344/kjp.2021.34.4.509
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