Table. 2.

Secondary outcomes

Outcome Studies (n) RR or mean difference (95% CI) P value for statistical significance I2 P value for
heterogeneity
GRADE
Cumulative intraoperative intravenous morphine equivalent consumption (mg) 7 [13, 17, 19-22, 24] –9.63 (–15.4 to –3.86) 0.001 93% < 0.00001 Moderate
Time to first rescue analgesic (hr) 5 [14-17, 20] 6.15 (2.19 to 10.12) 0.002 100% < 0.00001 High
Number of patients requiring rescue analgesia 7 [13-17, 19, 23] 0.39 (0.19 to 0.80) 0.01 90% < 0.00001 High
Urinary retention 2 [22, 24] 0.50 (0.10 to 2.60) 0.41 0% 1.00 Low
PONV 9 [13, 14, 16-19, 22-24] 0.54 (0.36 to 0.83) 0.005 40% 0.10 High
Itching 5 [13, 14, 18, 22, 24] 0.58 (0.25 to 1.35) 0.21 31% 0.22 Moderate
Length of hospital stay (day) 5 [17-20, 22] –1.04 (–2.23 to 0.15) 0.09 99% < 0.00001 Low
Frist time of ambulation (day) 3 [19, 20, 22] –0.93 (–1.97 to 0.07) 0.07 98% < 0.00001 Low

PONV: post operative nausea and vomiting, RR: risk ratio, CI: confidence interval, GRADE: Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation.

Korean J Pain 2021;34:487~500 https://doi.org/10.3344/kjp.2021.34.4.487
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