Table. 2.

Procedure-related variables

Variable VR (n = 19) Control (n = 19) P value
Procedure-related NRS pain score (0-10) 3.7 ± 1.4 5.5 ± 1.7 0.002
Procedure-related anxiety before intervention (1-5) 3.6 ± 0.6 3.4 ± 0.6 0.288
Procedure-related anxiety after intervention (1-5) 2.5 ± 0.8 3.2 ± 0.7 0.010
Difference between pre- and post-procedural anxiety (0-4) –1.1 ± 0.8 –0.2 ± 0.6 0.001
Satisfaction on pain control for the procedure (1-5) 3.2 ± 0.8 3.6 ± 1.0 0.158
Patients reporting much and extremely satisfied scored 4 and 5 (%) 10 (52.6) 4 (21.1) 0.091
Patients who requested additive LA during the procedure (%) 4 (21.1) 13 (68.4) 0.008
Total procedure time (min) 6.2 ± 1.3 6.1 ± 1.2 0.765
Total stay at the operating room (min) 31.5 ± 2.7 30.0 ± 3.0 0.119
Patients’ perception of the stay at the operating room (min) 20.9 ± 6.4 25.3 ± 4.8 0.022

Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation or number (%).

VR: virtual reality, NRS: numerical rating scale, LA: local anesthetics.

Korean J Pain 2021;34:304~314 https://doi.org/10.3344/kjp.2021.34.3.304
© Korean J Pain