Table. 1.

Patient demographics and clinical characteristics

Variable VR group (n = 19) Control group (n = 19) Total (n = 38)
Age (yr) 60.1 ± 13.4 65.2 ± 12.9 62.6 ± 13.3
Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.2 ± 4.1 23.2 ± 2.9 23.7 ± 3.5
Sex
Male 8 (42.1) 8 (42.1) 16 (42.1)
Female 11 (57.9) 11 (57.9) 22 (57.9)
Education level
< High school 8 (42.1) 5 (26.3) 13 (34.2)
High school 6 (31.6) 11 (57.9) 17 (44.7)
> High school 5 (26.3) 3 (15.8) 8 (21.1)
Duration of computer utilization (yr)
< 1 10 (52.6) 9 (47.4) 19 (50.0)
1-5 2 (10.5) 3 (15.8) 5 (13.2)
> 5 7 (36.8) 7 (36.8) 14 (36.8)
Previous VR experience 4 (21.1) 2 (10.5) 6 (15.8)
Motion sickness 7 (36.8) 9 (47.4) 16 (42.1)
Comorbidities
Hypertension 4 (21.1) 7 (36.8) 11 (28.9)
Diabetes mellitus 4 (21.1) 4 (21.1) 8 (21.1)
Asthma 1 (5.3) 1 (5.3) 2 (5.3)
Cardiovascular diseases 3 (15.8) 1 (5.3) 4 (10.5)
Cerebrovascular diseases 3 (15.8) 0 (0.0) 3 (7.9)
Neuropsychiatric disorders
Depression 6 (31.6) 4 (21.1) 10 (26.3)
Anxiety 3 (15.8) 5 (26.3) 8 (21.1)
Diagnosis
Complex regional pain syndrome 6 (31.6) 7 (36.8) 13 (34.2)
Failed back surgery syndrome 2 (10.5) 3 (15.8) 5 (13.2)
Postherpetic neuralgia 6 (31.6) 6 (31.6) 12 (31.6)
Othersa 5 (26.3) 3 (15.8) 8 (21.1)
Pain duration 22.8 ± 10.9 22.7 ± 24.2 22.7 ± 11.8
NRS average at baseline 5.3 ± 1.9 5.3 ± 2.3 5.3 ± 2.1
NRS worst at baseline 6.6 ± 1.6 6.7 ± 2.0 6.7 ± 1.8
Strong opioid use 7 (36.8) 8 (42.1) 15 (39.5)
HAM-A score 22.8 ± 10.9 23.6 ± 10.3 23.2 ± 10.4

Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation or number (%).

VR: virtual reality, NRS: numerical rating scale, HAM-A: Hamilton Anxiety Rating.

aOther diagnoses included painful peripheral diabetic polyneuropathy (n = 3 in the VR group and n = 2 in the control group) and chronic postoperative pain syndrome (n = 1 in each group).

Korean J Pain 2021;34:304~314 https://doi.org/10.3344/kjp.2021.34.3.304
© Korean J Pain