Instructions for Authors


Enacted June, 1988
Recently revised January, 2019

The Korean Journal of Pain is the official scientific journal of the Korean Pain Society, published four times a year on the first day of January, April, July, and October. Its abbreviated title is 'Korean J Pain.' The Korean Journal of Pain publishes definitive articles that can improve the care of patients in pain by providing a forum for clinical researchers, basic scientists, clinicians, and other health professionals. Manuscripts for submission to The Korean Journal of Pain should be prepared according to the following instructions. The Korean Journal of Pain follows the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication [1], if otherwise not described below.


The Korean Journal of Pain focuses on editorials, reviews, clinical and experimental research, case reports, brief reports, and letters to the editor. Any physicians or researchers throughout the world can submit a manuscript if the scope of the manuscript is appropriate. Manuscripts should be submitted in English starting January 1, 2010. Medical terminology should be written based on the most recent edition of Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary [2] or the most recent edition of English-Korean Korean- English Medical Terminology [3], published by the Korean Medical Association.


For the policies on research and publication ethics that are not stated in these instructions, the Good Publication Practice Guidelines for Medical Journals [4] or the Guidelines on Good Publication Practice [5] can be applied

Conflict-of-interest statement: If there are any conflicts of interest, authors should disclose them in the manuscript.

Statement of informed consent: Copies of written informed consents and Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval for clinical research should be kept. If necessary, the editor or reviewers may request copies of these documents to resolve questions about IRB approval and study conduct.

Statement of human and animal right: Clinical research should be done in accordance of the Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects, outlined in the Helsinki Declaration [6]. Clinical studies that do not meet the Helsinki Declaration will not be considered for publication. Human subjects should not be identifiable, such that patients' names, initials, hospital numbers, dates of birth, or other protected healthcare information should not be disclosed. For animal subjects, research should be performed based on the National or Institutional Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, and the ethical treatment of all experimental animals should be maintained.

Authorship: Authorship credit should be based on 1) substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3) final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet the above three conditions.

Originality and duplicate publication: All submitted manuscripts should be original and should not be considered by other scientific journals for publication at the same time. Any part of the accepted manuscript should not be duplicated in any other scientific journal without the permission of the Editorial Board. If duplicate publication related to the papers of this journal is detected, sanctions against authors may range from requesting their institutions to assess the facts, requesting a Letter to the Editor-in-Chief acknowledging the error and voluntarily withdrawing a manuscript, to a ban on publication in the Korean J Pain for up to 3 years.

Secondary publication: It is possible to republish manuscripts if the manuscripts satisfy the condition of secondary publication of the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals [1].


Manuscripts are reviewed by the Editorial Office to make certain that the submission contains all the necessary parts. The Editorial Office will not accept a submission if the author has not supplied all parts as described in the instructions. The manuscripts are then forwarded to the Editor-in-Chief. If the manuscript appears meritorious and appropriate for the Journal, the Editor-in-Chief assigns the manuscript to three appropriate experts in the corresponding field for peer review. The Editor-in-Chief, weighing the views of the reviewers and his or her own impressions of the manuscript, forwards a decision letter to the Editorial Office. This decision letter is then sent to the author by e-mail. Only three versions of the paper will be permitted (i.e. the first submission and two revisions). If the concerns of the reviewers are not satisfactorily addressed by the second revision, it is at the discretion of Editorial Board whether or not to continue with the review process. The Editorial Board will make a final decision on the approval for publication of submitted manuscripts and can request any further corrections, revisions, and deletions of the article text if necessary. Statistical editing is also done if the data needs professional statistical review by a statistician. Review and publication processes not described in the Instructions for Authors, will be incorporated into the Editorial Policy Statements approved by the Council of Science Editors Board of Directors [7].


Authors should sign the journal's copyright transfer form. Copyrights of all published materials are owned by the Korean Pain Society. They are also followed by the Creative Commons Attribution License [8].


There is no submission fee or article processing charge. Also, color printing is free. The whole cost occurred during the publication process is provided by the Korean Pain Society, barring any change of policy.

Subscription information: The Korean Journal of Pain is an open access journal. Full texts are freely available from http://www.epain.org/, http://synapse.koreamed.org/search.php?where=jvolume&id=47&code=0047KJPm, or http://www. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/journals/1261/. Print copies are freely dispatched to members of the Korean Pain Society and to major libraries in Korea and around the world. For the subscription of print copies, please contact the editorial office.


Authors are requested to submit their papers electronically only through the online manuscript management system (http://epain.org) [9]. Authors should check the author checklist for processing the submission. Authors, reviewers, and editors can send and receive all correspondences through this system. All procedures after submission are informed to the first and corresponding authors. For the change of authorship before acceptance, the manuscript should be resubmitted after revision of authorship. If there are any questions concerning these instructions, please contact the editorial office.
Editorial office of The Korean Pain Society
#1705, 240 Gangnam-daero, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 06267, Korea
Tel: +82-2-6241-7582, Fax: +82-2-6241-8275,
E-mail: editorial_office@painfree.or.kr, http://www.painfree.or.kr


Word processors and format of manuscript: Manuscripts should be submitted in the Microsoft or RTF format of any word processor programs. Manuscripts should be typed on A4 size paper or standard US paper size (width 8.5 in.; length 11 in.) with double spacing, and a font size of 10 or larger with margins of 2 cm (1 in.) on each side, and 3 cm (2 in.) for top and bottom.

Arrangement of manuscript: The article should be organized in the order of Cover page, Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Discussion, Acknowledgments, References, Table, Figure legends, and Appendices. Each new section's title should begin on a new page. The conclusion should be included in the discussion section. Number pages consecutively, beginning with the title page. Page numbers should be placed at the middle of the bottom of the page. Figures and photographs should be submitted separately from the text of the paper. For survey-based clinical studies, the original survey document may be supplemented in an appendix.

Reporting guidelines for specific study designs: For specific study designs, such as randomized control studies, studies of diagnostic accuracy, meta-analyses, observational studies and non-randomized studies, it is recommended that authors follow the reporting guidelines listed in the following table [1]

CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) http://www.consort-statement.org/
STARD (Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy) http://www.stard-statement.org/
PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) http://www.prisma-statement.org/
STOBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in epidemiology) http://www.strobe-statement.org/
MOOSE (Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) http://www.consort-statement.org/Initiatives/MOOSE/moose.pdf

Sex and Gender Equity in Research
The Korean Journal of Pain is particularly interested in experiments involving both male and female subjects studied at the same time, and the sufficient sample size to ensure meaningful statistical comparisons. Please ensure the correct use of the terms sex (when reporting biological factors) and gender (identity, psychosocial or cultural factors). Any paper utilizing subjects (cells, animals, and humans) of only one sex must state the sex of the samples in the paper, with the obvious exception of sex-specific issues (e.g., uterus or prostate). For cellular research, the sex of origin of cells used should be described. Authors must also state the rationale for using samples from one sex rather than from both. It is recommended for authors to follow the SAGER (Sex and Gender Equity in Research) guidelines (https://doi.org/10.1186/s41073-016-0007-6).


(1) Cover page

  • Title
    Title should be concise and precise. Capitalize the whole words of the title except postpositions. Drug names in the title should be written as a generic name not brand name.
  • Authors and affiliations
    The names of authors should include the first name, middle name and last name for each author. If several authors and institutions are listed, it should be clearly indicated with which department and institution each author is affiliated. If one author belongs to multiple departments, mark footnotes on the name. Ex) Gil-Dong Hong1,2 / 1deprtment A and 2department B
  • Running title
    A running title of no more than 45 characters, including spaces, should be included. If inappropriate, editorial board may revise it.
  • Corresponding author
    Name, address, zip code, telephone number, FAX number, and e-mail address of the author responsible for the manuscript correspondence should be described. ORCID of the corresponding must be provided.
  • Previous presentation at conferences
    The titles of the conferences, dates of presentation and the locations of the conferences may be described.

(2) Abstract
All manuscripts should contain a structured abstract written only in English. Provide an abstract of no more than 250 words. It should contain four subsections: Background, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. Do not include citations in the abstract. A list of key words should be included at the end of the abstract. Each manuscript should be accompanied by 8-12 key words. The selection of key words should be from MeSH (Medical Subject Headings). The authors can select the key words of the manuscript from the MeSH on Demand homepage (https://meshb.nlm.nih.gov/MeSHonDemand). Separate each word with a semicolon (;), and mark a period (.) at the end of the last word.

Ex) Key Words: Antianxiety drugs; Anticonvulsants; Anxiety; Etifoxine; Gamma-aminobutyric (GABA) receptors; Human translocator protein (18kDa); Mechanism of action; Nerve regeneration; Neuropathic pain; Neurosteroids

(3) Introduction
The introduction should address the purpose of the article concisely, and include background reports relevant to the purpose of the paper.

(4) Materials and methods
The materials and methods section should include sufficient details of the design, subjects, and methods of the article in order, as well as the data analysis methods and control of bias in the study. Enough details need to be addressed in the methodology section of an experimental study so that it can be further replicated by others.
 When reporting experiments with human or animal subjects, the authors should indicate whether they received an approval from the Institutional Review Board for the study. When reporting experiments with animal subjects, the authors should indicate whether the handling of the animals was supervised by the Institutional Board for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Demographic data should be included in the materials and methods section if applicable. The term "American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification" should not be abbreviated. As a rule, sub-section titles are not recommended.

  • Units
    Laboratory information should be reported using the International System of Units [SI] [11].

    A. The unit for volume is "L", with others including "dl, ml, μl".
       Ex) 1 L, 5 ml
    B. The units for pressure are mmHg or cmH2O.
    C. Use Celcius (℃) for temperature
    D. Units for concentration are M, mM, μM.
    E. When more than two items are presented, diagonal slashes are acceptable for simple units. Negative exponents should not be used.
       Ex) mg/kg/min [O], mgㆍkg−1ㆍmin−1 [X]
    F. Leave one space between number and units.
       Ex) 5 mmHg
       Exception) 5%, 36oC
    G. Units of time
       Ex) hour: 1 h = 60 min = 3,600 s
       day: 1 d = 24 h = 86,400 s

  • Machines and equipments
    Provide model name and manufacturer's name, city, state, and country.
    Do not put "." between the words when writing name of countries.
    Ex) U.S.A. [X], USA [O]

  • For drug names, use generic name. If brand name should be used, insert it in parentheses after the generic name. Provide or TM as a superscript and address manufacturer's name and country.

  • Ions
    Ex) Na [O], Mg2 [O], Mg++ [X], Mg+2 [X]

  • Statistics
    Describe precisely the methods of statistical analysis and computer programs so that reader can reproduce the same results if original data are available. Mean and standard deviation should be described as mean ± SD, also mean and standard error as mean ± SEM. P value should be described like P = 0.25.

(5) Results
Results should be presented in logical sequence in the text, tables, and illustrations giving the main or most important findings first. Do not repeat all the data in the tables or illustrations in the text; emphasize or summarize only the most important observations. Results can be sectioned by sub- section titles, but should not be numbered. Citation of tables and figures should be provided as Table 1, and Fig. 1.

(6) Discussion
Discussion should be described to emphasize the new and important aspects of the study, including the conclusions. Do not repeat the results in detail or other information given in the Introduction or the Results section. Describe the conclusions according to the purpose of the study but avoid unqualified statements that are not adequately supported by the data. The conclusion may be stated briefly in the last paragraph of Discussion section.

(7) Acknowledgements
Source(s) of funding, including foundations, institutions, pharmaceutical and device manufacturers, private companies, or intramural departmental sources should be disclosed. Persons or institutions who contributed to the papers, but not enough to be co-authors, may be introduced.

(8) References
The description of the journal reference follows the followings. Otherwise it follows the NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [12].

  • References should be obviously related to documents and should not exceed 50 in number. References should be numbered consecutively in the order they are first mentioned in the text. Square bracket of quotation document should be applied at the last of the last word. All the references should be stated in English, including author, title, name of journal etc.
  • If necessary, the editorial board may request the original document listed in the references.
  • The journal title should be abbreviated according to the List of Journals Indexed for MEDLINE [13] or KoreaMED [14].
  • Six authors can be listed. If more than 6 authors are listed only list 6 names followed by 'et al.'
  • Provide start and final page numbers of cited references.
  • Abstracts are not allowed as references.
  • Description format

    A. Regular journal
    Author name. Article name. Title of journal Year published; Volume: Page-Page.
    Ex) Kumar K, Taylor RS, Jacques L, Eldabe S, Meglio M, Molet J, et al. Spinal cord stimulation versus conventional medical management for neuropathic pain: a multicentre randomised controlled trial in patients with failed back surgery syndrome. Pain 2007; 132: 179-88.
    Ex) Shim JC, Cho HY, Kim DW, Seung IS. Preliminary results of pulsed radiofrequency thermocoagulation for lumbar radiculopathy: short term follow-up. Korean J Pain 2002; 15: 69-74.

    B. Monographs
    • Author. Book name. Edition. Place, Press. Year published, pp (Start page)-(End page)
    • If reference page is only one page mark 'p'.
    • Mark if it is beyond the 2nd edition.
      Ex) Nuwer MR. Evoked potential monitoring in the operating room. 2nd ed. New York, Raven Press. 1986, pp 136-71.

    Translated documents cannot be used as references. The original document should be provided as reference.

    Any separate author of a chapter should be provided.
    Ex) Raja SN, Meyer RA, Ringkamp M, Capmbell JN. Peripheral neural mechanisms of nociception. In: Textbook of pain. 4th ed. Edited by Wall PD, Melzack R. Edinburgh, Churchill Livingstone. 1999, pp 11-57.

    E. Secondary citations that may occur when an author takes and uses information from another source can not be allowed as references.

    F. Electronic documents
    • Journal articles in electronic format
      Ex) Grainge MJ, Seth R, Guo L, Neal KR, Coupland C, Vryenhoef P, et al. Cervical human papilloma virus screening among older women. Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Internet]. 2005 Nov [2005 Nov 25]. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol11no11/05-0575.htm. Ex) Grainge MJ, Seth R, Guo L, Neal KR, Coupland C, Vryenhoef P, et al. Cervical human papilloma virus screening among older women. Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Internet]. 2005 Nov [2005 Nov 25]. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol11no11/05-0575.htm.
    • Monograph in electronic format
      Ex) Reeves JRT, Maibach H. CDI, Clinical dermatology illustrated [monograph on CD-ROM].
      CMEA Multimedia Group producers. 2nd ed. Version 2.0 San Diego: CMEA; 1995.
    • Computer files
      Ex) Hemodynamic III. the ups and downs of hemodynamics [computer program]. Version 2.2 Orlando (FL).
    G. PhD thesis
    Author. Title of thesis [kind of degree]. Place: School, Year.
    Ex) Youssef NM. School adjustment of children with congenital heart disease (Doctoral dissertation). Pittsburgh (PA): Univ. of Pittsburgh, 1988.

    H. In press
    Ex) Leshner AI. Molecular mechanisms of cocaine addiction. N Engl J Med 1996 [in press].

(9) Table
  • Type or print each table on a separate sheet of paper.
  • Number tables consecutively in the order of their first citation in the text.
  • Supply a brief title as a short phrase for each.
  • Tables should be more than 4 rows and should not exceed 1 page.
  • Except titles and first letters, all the text in the tables should be provided in lower case.
  • In demographic data, sex would be provided in M/F, and age in yr. Data of year, weight, height, and any other units would be provided with one decimal place.
  • "±" sign in upper column of table should be lined up with lower column.
  • Footnotes should be provided consecutively in the order of citation in table.
  • Define all abbreviations except those approved by the International System of Units. Define all abbreviations every time they are repeated.
  • Marks should be given in order of a), b), and c). When marks are used to explain items on the table, indicate those with superscript marking.

(10) Figures and illustrations
  • The Korean Journal of Pain publishes in full color, and encourages authors to use color to increase the clarity of figures. Standard colors should be used (black, red, green, blue, cyan, magenta, orange, and gray). Avoid colors that are difficult to see on the printed page (e.g. yellow) or are visually distracting (e.g. pink). Figure backgrounds and plot areas should be white, not gray. Axis lines and ticks should black and thick enough to clearly frame the image. Axis labels should be large enough to be easily readable, and printed in black.
  • Figures and photographs should be submitted as tif files. Submit files of figures and photographs separately from the text of the paper. Width of figure should be 84 mm (one column). Contrast of photos or graphs should be at least 600 dpi. Contrast of line drawings should be at least 1,200 dpi. The power point file (ppt, pptx) is also acceptable.
  • Number figures as "Fig. Arabic numerals" in the order of their citation (Ex. Fig. 1).
  • Photographs should be submitted individually. If figure 1 is divided into A, B, C, and D, do not combine it into one, but submit each of them separately. Authors should submit line drawing in black and white.
  • In horizontal and vertical legends, the letter of the first English word should be capitalized.
  • Connection between numbers should be done by "-" not "~" with no spaces before or after the hyphen (Ex. 2-4).
  • Figures should be explained briefly in the footnotes. Format is the same as table format.
  • An individual should not be recognizable in photographs or X-ray films unless written consent of the subject has been obtained and is provided at the time of submission.
  • Pathological samples should be pictured with a measuring stick.

(11) Legends for figures and photographs
  • Figure and photo legends should be on a separate page following bibliography.
  • Instructions are same as table instructions.


Case reports describe unique cases that make an important teaching point or scientific observation. Case reports may describe unusual and instructive cases, novel analgesic techniques, novel use of equipment, or new information on diseases of importance to pain medicine.

(1) Cover page: Proportional to clinical and experimental studies.
(2) Abstract: Should not be divided into sections and should not exceed 150 words.
(3) Introduction: "Introduction" section should not be divided. Briefly describe case and background without title.
(4) Case report: Describe only clinical statement which is directly related to diagnosis and management of pain.
(5) Discussion: Briefly discuss the case, and state conclusion at the end of the case. Do not structure conclusion section separately.
(6) References: Do not exceed 20 references.
(7) Tables and figures: Proportional to clinical and experimental studies.


Topics suitable for presentation for short reports include important, unique case reports or reports of short, original research studies. Brief Reports should be formatted in the following manner:
(1) Cover pages should be provided proportional to clinical or experimental study. Omit page title.
(2) Corresponding author should be the first author and a maximum of five authors is allowable.
(3) An abstract is required for all Brief Reports. (Please follow the formatting guidelines listed under Case reports.)
(4) Body text should not exceed 1,500 words and should have no more than 15 references.
(5) The article should contain no more than a combination of four tables and/or figures.


Review articles synthesize previously published material into an integrated presentation of our current understanding of a topic. Review articles should describe aspects of a topic in which scientific consensus exists, as well as aspects that remain controversial and are the subject of ongoing scientific disagreement and research. Review articles should include an unstructured abstract of less than 250 words. Body text should not exceed A4 or "standard US Paper" pages, and figures and tables should be equal to or less than 6.


Letters to the Editor should include brief constructive comments concerning previously published articles or interesting cases. Letters to the editor should be submitted no more than 1 year after the paper has been published.
(1) Cover pages should be provided proportional to clinical or experimental study. Omit page title. Corresponding author should be the first author.
(2) Body text should not exceed 1,000 words and should have references.
(3) Letters may be edited by the Editorial Board and if necessary, a response by the author of subjected paper may be provided.


  1. International Committee of Medical Journal Editor. Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication [Internet]. International Committee of Medical Journal Editor; 1979 [Updated 2008 Oct; cited 2010 Feb 24]. Available from: http://www.icmje.org/.
  2. Dorland WAN. Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Elsevier; c1898 [Updated 2008; cited 2010 Feb 24]. Available from: http://www.dorlands.com/.
  3. Korean Medical Association. English-Korean Korean- English Medical Terminology [Internet]. Seoul (Korea): Korean Medical Association; 1977 [Updated 2005; cited 2010 Feb 24]. Available from: http://www.kamje.or.kr/term/.
  4. Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. Good Publication Practice Guidelines for Medical Journals [Internet]. Seoul (Korea): Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors; 2008 Jan 31 [cited 2010 Feb 24]. Available from: http://kamje.or.kr/publishing_ethics.html.
  5. Committee on Publication Ethics. Guidelines on Good Publication Practice [Internet]. London (United Kingdom): Committee on Publication Ethics; 1999 April [cited 2010 Feb 24]. Available from: http://publicationethics.org.
  6. World Medical Association. Declaration of Helsinki [Internet]. Ferney-Voltaire (France): World Medical Association; 1964 [updated 2008 Oct; cited 2010 Feb 24]. Available from: http:// http://www.wma.net/e/policy/b3.htm.
  7. Council of Science Editors. Editorial Policies [Internet]. Reston (VA): Council of Science Editors 2009 [cited 2010 Feb 24]. Available from: http://www.councilscienceeditors.org/editorial_policies/policies.cfm.
  8. Creative Commons. Creative Commons Attribution License [Internet]. Sanfrancisco (CA): Creative Commons; 2009 [cited by 2010 Feb 24]. Available from: http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/.
  9. The Korean Pain Society. Online manuscript management system [internet]. Seoul (Korea): The Korean Pain Society 2010 [cited 2010 Feb 24]. Available from: http:// epain.org/
  10. National Library of Medicine (US). MeSH [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 1954 [updated 2009, cited 2010 Feb 24]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=mesh.
  11. International Bureau of Weights and Measures. The International System of Units [Internet]. Cedex (France); 1799 Jun 22 [updated 1971, cited 2010 Feb 24]. Available from: http://www.bipm.org/en/si/.
  12. Patrias, K. Citing medicine: the NLM style guide for authors, editors, and publishers [Internet]. 2nd ed. Wendling, DL, technical editor. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007 [updated 2009 Jan 14; cited 2010 Feb 24]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/citingmedicine.
  13. National Library of Medicine (US). Journals [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2009 [cited 2010 Feb 24]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=journals.
  14. Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. KoreaMed: List of Journals[Internet]. Seoul (Korea): Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors; 1997 [updated 2009, cited 2010 Feb 24]. Available from: http://www.koreamed.org/JournalBrowser.php.


Journal Info

April 2019, Vol. 32, Issue 2

Francis Sahngun Nahm, MD, PhD
eISSN: 2093-0569
pISSN: 2005-9159
Frequency: Quarterly
Ranking: 43/124 in Anesthesiology and Pain medicine